The Pennsylvania Long Rifle (also known as the Kentucky Long Rifle) is a flintlock rifle from colonial America. It was one of the two Mid-Range weapons of George Washington along with the Brown Bess Musket.


  • Weight: Variable.
  • Length: Over 65 in
  • Barrel Length: 35 in to over 48 in
  • Caliber: .50 inch musket ball
  • Action: Flintlock
  • Rate of Fire: User dependent (about 58 seconds)
  • Muzzle velocity: 1,235 fps
  • Effective Range: 250 yards
  • Feed System: Muzzle-loaded


The Pennsylvania Long Rifle was tested with the Brown Bess musket to eliminate 4 infantry targets and one commander on a horse. The George Washington Team was able to kill all 5 targets in 3 minutes 31 seconds with 6 hits, the horse killed, with an average reload time of 58 seconds for the Rifle. The edge was given to the Pennsylvania Long Rifle due to it's accuracy.


The long rifle developed on the American frontier in the 1740's. Although European smoothbore muskets were the weapons of choice on the frontier, the rifle gradually became more popular with frontiersmen, Native American fighters, and professional market hunters due to its greater effective range. This accuracy came at a price, as it took nearly twice as long to reload the rifle as it did a musket due to black powder becoming trapped in the rifling and fouling the barrel. During the American Revolution it became an effective weapon of the minuteman militia as it's range and accuracy made it an ideal hit and run weapon for their guerrilla tactics, and showing the effectiveness of early modern sniping.

George Washington was one of the first generals to use rifles in combat, as many armies believed that the slow reloading speed made the rifle useless against large armies. Even though it showed its effectiveness, muskets continued to dominate the battlefield thanks to their cheap costs and a faster reloading speed was essential for conventional and Napoleonic style warfare.

Snipers of the Continental Army and Minute Men frequently mentioned how easy it was to aim at a Redcoat; as the flashy contrasting colors of the coat made the Redcoat very visible even within dense forests or at night. Some snipers also mentioned that the overlapping chestbelts on a Redcoat uniform could be viewed as an X or a bullseye, especially since the overlap of the belts was over the center of the torso.

Most rifles used by the Continental Army were hunting rifles. Since only military muskets were designed to be fitted with the bayonet, most civilian rifles were not designed for it and so had no bayonet of them all.